By Riju Chowdhury


Spoofing is when a cybercriminal impersonates another person, company, or entity in order to carry out harmful activities. To fake their identities, cybercriminals employ a variety of methods. Spoofing cyber assaults can vary from simple spoofing of email addresses, websites, or phone numbers to more sophisticated faking techniques such as spoofing IP addresses, Domain Name Servers (DNS), or Address Resolution Protocol (ARP). The ultimate objective of spoofing, regardless of the method employed, is to steal from and harm victims. Cybercriminals employ faked email addresses, websites, and phone numbers to mislead victims into submitting personal information, downloading files, or clicking links that install malware using sophisticated social engineering techniques. Spoofing, like other cyber assaults, relies on social engineering to succeed. Spoofing email addresses, websites, and other online organizations that most people are acquainted with is a common tactic used by cybercriminals. This lowers the amount of uncertainty and suspicion, allowing you to take advantage of human nature's tendency to trust.

How does Spoofing occur?

Spoofing occurs when cybercriminals take advantage of technological or implementation flaws. If they are effective, they will persuade individuals that the counterfeit email, website, phone call, text message, or other method is genuine. Cybercriminals use sophisticated social engineering techniques to persuade victims that they are safe and making sound judgments. Cybercriminals rely on human characteristics such as trust, a desire to assist, a lack of attention to detail, and a lack of reading comprehension. This is why it's critical that security awareness initiatives prioritise human risk reduction.

Types of Spoofing

Spoofing can be classified into the following types

1. E-mail Spoofing

When a cybercriminal uses a false email address to perpetrate a cybercrime, this is known as email spoofing. The offender may fake the email address, the email sender name, or both, depending on the email spoofing method. Furthermore, the cybercriminal might adopt several identities, including that of the sender, the corporation, or both. The fake email employs urgent and persuasive wording to persuade the recipient to take action right now. This sense of urgency accomplishes two goals: it reduces the likelihood of uncertainty and doubt, and it persuades the recipient that they are assisting and doing the right thing.

2. Caller ID Spoofing

Caller ID spoofing is a popular scam in which a phone number that seems to be from your area code is used. When we see a local number, we are more inclined to pick up the phone. When their call is answered, hackers utilise social engineering techniques to keep individuals on the line and persuade them to take action. Because the caller ID seems to be that of a police officer, the victim is persuaded to pay fictitious fines, disclose private information, and so on, all under the fear of being arrested. This cutting-edge social engineering method fortifies the relationship and lends credibility to the call.

3. Website Spoofing

Website spoofing involves creating a phony website that appears to be real. The logo, branding, colors, layout, domain name, and contact information on a fake website are all identical to those on a genuine website. It's tough to spot a fake website without looking closely at the domain name or looking for tiny faults in the text. Spoofed websites are used by cybercriminals for a variety of purposes, including gathering login information, obtaining credit card information, installing malware, and other harmful acts. Often, the target initially receives a phishing email that directs them to the phishing website.

4. Text message Spoofing

The use of a fake phone number to send harmful text messages is known as text messaging spoofing. The cybercriminal hides behind the sender's name or phone number. This form of spoofing relies on extensive research to determine which types of text messages the receiver is most likely to receive and respond to. The text message might contain a phone number for the receiver to contact or a link to a rogue website that can be used to commit more cybercrime. To get the receiver to reply fast, the SMS message employs social engineering techniques.

5. GPS Spoofing

When GPS spoofing occurs, a false GPS signal is sent to a GPS receiver, causing all GPS devices in the region to report the wrong position. Cybercriminals employ GPS spoofing to take control of automobiles, boats, drones, and any other device that relies on navigation. GPS spoofing is a sophisticated technique that may be used to hijack drones or ships, as well as to disrupt military navigation systems.

6. IP address Spoofing

IP address spoofing conceals the real identity and location of the cybercriminal's computer or mobile device. Spoofing an IP address for a network that employs IP address authentication makes it easier for cybercriminals to obtain access to the network. IP address spoofing is commonly used to launch a denial-of-service attack, flooding the network with traffic and eventually shutting it down. In other cases, the cybercriminal merely wishes to conceal their location from the receiver; this strategy might be used with email or website spoofing to give the assault more credibility.

7. Extension Spoofing

The file type is disguised via extension spoofing, making it simpler to persuade individuals to download and install attachments. People have been cautioned not to install executables, which cybercriminals are aware of. A malicious executable may be disguised with a faked extension, such as doc.exe, by a cybercriminal. The file appears in the email as newfile.doc, and the receiver downloads and installs it without hesitation.

8. Facial Spoofing

Facial spoofing is a new form of spoofing that uses facial recognition software to open doors or gain entry to a protected building. This sort of spoofing is very uncommon, but as facial recognition technology develops and more businesses adopt it as part of their security system, the hazards of facial spoofing will increase. A cybercriminal may take images from social media to create a resemblance of a person, which they can then use to unlock any face recognition security system.

Prevention of Spoofing

The following ways can be used to prevent spoofing:

  • Protect against email, website, IP, and DNS spoofing by using technological controls and processes.

  • Make it a priority to teach your staff about social engineering. Inform your staff on how social engineering works. Real-life events and training may be used to demonstrate how simple it is to be duped by social engineering.

  • Take advantage of security awareness programs that teach adults using flexible learning approaches. Make sure all training is interesting, relevant, and based on real-life circumstances.

  • Remind employees of the dangers that they may encounter in their email. To keep the conversation about spoofing and cyber security continuing, use simulations, email newsletters, communication campaigns, and cyber heroes.

  • Regularly and consistently conduct security awareness training programs to educate individuals about the dangers of sharing private information, passwords, business data, and credit card information over the internet.

  • Spoofing should be taught to your team. Use spoofing simulation software and training that incorporates real-world instances.

  • Use simulations to check employee awareness of spoofing, social engineering, and other cyber risks on a regular basis.

  • Create a company culture that encourages people to alter their habits. Create a work environment where workers have the time and tools to learn about cyber security.

Legal remedies

Section 43 (A) of the Information Technology Act of 2000, which includes fines and compensations for offenses such as "damage to the computer, computer system, or computer networks, etc," gives the victim the ability to submit an appeal in court for compensation for the wrong done to him. Anyone who interacts with sensitive data, information, or maintains it on their own or on behalf of others and carelessly compromises such data or information shall be held responsible under this section and may be forced to pay compensation at the discretion of the court. According to Section 65 of the IT Act, “Whoever knowingly or intentionally conceals, destroys, or alters any computer source code used for a computer, computer program, computer system, or computer network, or who intentionally or knowingly causes another to conceal, destroy, or alter any computer source code used for a computer, computer program, computer system, or computer network, or who intentionally or knowingly causes another to conceal, destroy, or alter any computer source code used for a computer, computer program, computer system, or computer.


Mankind has become increasingly dependent on the Internet for all of his needs as technology progresses. The internet has given man instant access to everything from a single location. Social networking, online shopping, data storage, gaming, online schooling, and online jobs are just a few of the things that may be done over the internet. The internet is used in almost every area of daily life. The concept of cybercrime increased in popularity as the internet and its related benefits expanded in popularity. There are several forms of cybercrime.

Author: Riju Chowdhury

Course: B.A. LLB, 2nd Year

College: Amity University Kolkata

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