Responsibility and Immunity of the World Health Organization in times of COVID-19


INTRODUCTION While the global population is growing speedily, and people lives longer, our living environment has changed considerably. There's therefore a larger need to support our health and welfare, primarily our immune system, at different stages throughout our life. These concerns relating to immunity have become more vital, given the periodic outbreaks of infectious diseases like SARS (Severe acute respiratory syndrome), MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome), and currently the coronavirus pandemic, that within a few months, has led to more than 3 million cases across the world. The principles of international responsibility are often used to hold the states and international organisations answerable for internationally wrongful acts. The spread of the virus over the countries have brought up many health issues, and caused widespread social and economic disruption. By putting societies and economies on hold, we've got curtailed the power of the virus to unfold through our communities. These defensive measures have helped to limit some of the short-term impacts of the virus, and acquired United States time to translate what we have learned regarding the virus into solutions so we can get back to a more normal approach of living: a new normal. World Health Organization is functioning with 194 Member States, across six regions, and from over a hundred and fifty offices, who employees are united in a shared commitment to attain better health for everybody, everywhere. the primary role of World Health Organization is to direct and coordinate international health inside the United Nations system. it was formed on 7th April 1948 and currently which is widely known as World Health Day. The World Health Organization updated COVID-19 Strategy has come up with the other aspects also relating to the impact of the virus as beyond health, like foreign affairs, finance, education, transport, travel and tourism, public works, water and sanitation, environment, social protection and agriculture. The aim is to leverage resources and efforts to make sure that each sector of government and society takes ownership of the response, participates in it and helps stop transmission through sector-specific and general measures, together with promoting hand hygiene, respiratory etiquette and individual-level physical distancing. As COVID-19 transmission has advanced globally, the first focus of most countries has been the speedy identification, testing and treatment of patients with serious and severe COVID-19, and the sheltering of people at the highest risk of poor outcomes. Only few measures were made for those with mild disease, or contacts of cases. One of the defining features of COVID 19 is that the immense stress placed on health systems and physicians by the large proportion of COVID-19 patients who will need quality clinical care. several patients want help to breathe, with outbreaks putting acute burdens on staffing levels, convenience of equipment, and crucial supplies like medical oxygen, ventilators and private protective equipment (PPE). All the doctors have to put their life in danger in order to save lives of other people from this virus and a few doctors have lost their own lives as a result. In several countries, women account for up to 70th of the health work force, and have thus been disproportionality affected. Even very robust health systems are speedily powerless and compromised by an explosive COVID -19 outbreak. Contingency planning should embody extreme scenarios, such as the requirement to speedily and utterly reconfigure and largely repurpose the entire health sector. International Law and Responsibility of International Organization vis-à-vis Immunity A breach of law could involve an obligation of reparation both for the states and international organization. With the 21st century we have witnessed the fostering of responsibility and accountability of the international organizations, a gleaming departure from the previously held conception of responsibility as a mere attribution of a state only. The present pandemic considerations the international community, thus the responsibility of World Health Organization transcends the domestic law framework; so, it may be pointed that, states aggrieved by the pandemic has the right to sue the World Health Organization at the domestic level, based on an accepted principle in international law, i.e., ‘Nationality Principle.’ Immunities of International Organisations got a footprint since the establishment of United Nations Organisation, consistent to Article 105(3) of the UN Charter and the 1946 Convention on Privileges and Immunities of the U.N, As World Health Organization is a specialised agency of UN, the immunities bestowed on the UN stretches to the World Health Organization. Still, the international organisations would relish only the extent of immunity necessary for them to discharge their functions, as the scope of this immunities covers their official acts. Article 2 of the World Health Organization Constitution enlists twenty functions of World Health Organization, one among the important functions being to “stimulate and advance work to eradicate epidemic, endemic and different diseases.” further Article 66 of World Health Organization constitution clearly states that the immunity of World Health Organization is simply to the extent of the fulfilment of the function of the World Health Organization, so the omission of World Health Organization to act in desperate time proactively is deliration of its function thus immunity needs revaluation. If an act of World Health Organization weren't within the reach of the functions and purposes of the World Health Organization, it might be deemed ultra vires, and proceedings may be instituted against the erring international organization within the domestic courts. As the U.S is the most important contributor to the World Health Organization, its discontent towards WHO for its lackadaisical perspective in coping with the pandemic is understandable, however, going by the recent developments, it is deciphered that Trump’s intention to disown World Health Organization albeit an act of desperation is well-founded. Conclusion World Health Organization continues to review the proof on antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. While having a research on the same it has shown that the people who have recovered from the COVID-19 have antibodies to the virus. However, a number of these individuals have terribly low levels of neutralizing antibodies in their blood, suggesting that cellular immunity may additionally be vital for recovery. As no study has evaluated whether or not the presence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 confers immunity to later infection by this virus in humans. A revived focus on large-scale public health capacities should be enforced with urgency. the world stands at a pivotal juncture within the course of this pandemic. collaborative analysis and information sharing have helped to answer crucial questions about the advantages and costs of various response strategies in several contexts, the transmissibility of the virus, the clinical spectrum of the disease, and its capacity to speedily overwhelm even the most resilient health systems. we all know currently what we are up against, and that we are learning the way to beat it. COVID-19 threatens human life, threatens livelihoods, and threatens the method of life of every individual in every society.

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