Negotiated Or Patriarchal Investment ?


Times were diverse when there being unisexual ordinarily the laws were homogenous to both individuals (men and women) )and no insatiability of endowment or atmosphere of menace was there where women were back treated as equivalent to men and with much high regard and integrity, even we can say women strengthening , equivalent rights for both the genders were valued and no revision of dowry was practiced. History has given us numerous models and convictions which were and are still a healthy example which itself begins from the very own religion “Hinduism”, we read it by heart and in some cases it asks for nothing but a more broad opening of minds, staying in the pink and being the ruler of divine beings still less ground-breaking then his better half is something which offers chills to each at that point and one such example is , the one who is viewed as the most remarkable goddess of intensity and vitality – Parvathi and not Shiva , endowed with full of knowledge and worshipped the most, goddess of knowledge- Saraswati and not Brahma. But as hover of time passed all these being alive in our books and sanctuaries just got restricted till sacred spots and libraries only and were not disregarded rather an alternate belief aroused which makes us forward a perspective on marriage or concept of it as a business bargain/deal or an agreement to predators. Lashing of blood , female foeticides , bothering corrosive assaults, acid attacks , cry of those women beaten for dowry, thrashing her on the floor pulling her hair , all those words , abuses mental agony is just so debilitated that she favors for a self-destruction as opposed to this life. Experiencing the antiquated sacred texts where in history we found about Mahabharata and Ramayana, which portrayed us to a different scenario of the idea of marriage , in Hindu also called as “Swayamvar” where bride is reserved an option to pick up her spouse by deciding whom she wants to marry , rather than a protracted swayamvadhu , as the groom could not hold beauty competitions for whom he wants to marry . one such oldest instance of such marriage having been solemnized is accepted to be the one between the Hindu Lord Rama, the eldest son of ‘King Dasharatha' & the princess Sita the daughter of ‘King Janak ', described very interestingly in Hindi scripture Ramayana. In that marriage “SWAYAMVARA” was held (groom determination ceremony ) in which a daunting condition was of lifting & putting an arrow to the consecrated bow of Shiva blessed to be unshakably hefty by Lord Parshurama and the essential condition was just fulfilled by lord Rama proving his mettle that he was eligible to marry Sita. Another instance is where in Mahabharata , Arjun demonstrated his mettle by  hitting the eye of the fish rotating above by just taking a gander at the fish’s reflection in a pool of oil underneath. If the beauty of our tradition was so glorified so how did such evil came and that excessively adopted by our society as of now it was never a piece of Indian antiquated literature where such terms or such examples are characterized where various social, conservative and legitimate issues emerge in Indian culture extending from violence over women to broken marriage , lop-sidedness of male female proportion. As though we see the origin of dowry existed in our country however its format was extraordinary and relevant as compared to now which is absurd and infringing rights of women , where prior endowment in the early period was considered as a social status of women an institution led by women for women for their monetary benefits in the danger of crisis. The layout of it was in form of gifts which were related to sentiments and were valuable in the form of wealth equally given to her by her father during her marriage which was more sensible and useful action which right now is an expedient action because at that era the riches was given to the women and not men , the reality to this part gets more intriguing as at that time the riches was a supporting crisis and more pro efficient part played by the family of the bride was serving it as an apparatus of monetary related freedom by giving her the wealth for herself and not for the groom or his family , this gave budgetary security just as autonomy and status in the public eye as they were not bound to their better half monetarily. Women were great administrators, had a say in the affairs of state , provisions were novel with as much liberty they desire. Presently you be thinking about when did an inappropriate turn come? The term dowry ,its menace , its agenda , shaping of predators , exclusion of ladies from the predecessor property, considering her a burden all this came when the britishers played a rule of collecting tax in the name of looting by establishing The Permanent Settlement of Bengal – where prior in pre-colonial period no privatization of land was there, no proprietorship to it was rehearsed in past rather the land had a place with the sovereign and at whatever point any difficulties emerge or any risk to it, individuals used to move starting with one spot then onto the next which gives us a view that only an amicability with one another and no covetousness was there but as we state times changes and it all began when the britishers invaded in India made their own policies , began plundering in the name of collecting tax and allowing zamindars to take the land of poor farmers and charge land incomes in the name of tax and ill treating peasant and gave an own term “privatization” all this was done under lord Cornwallis and this lead to the ownership where fights were done for thesake of land , this framework was all alien to Indian culture , it was all introduced by britishers playing a standard of divide and rule by choosing few persons as tax collectors , permitting them to practice rights on the place that is known for other people , have its full center advantage and afterward paying the gathered duty to local government where the ranchers were suffering from this settlement and left at mercy of the zamindars who had a share in the production but not fixed. As the entirety of this was a side part to how the endowment creation as a starter was done, however the primary course was served when the britishers gave a move totally indifferent and affecting the status of women by enforcing the standard which prohibited the women from owning any property.

In the past system , parents used to give wealth and gifts to the bride during marriage and bride used to own this wealth for her own independent financial needs.


In fact, the situation even in 1870s was that, “IN 49 SEPARATE VOLUMES OF CUSTOMARY LAW COVERING COLONIAL PUNJAB, WHICH TODAY COMPRISES PAKISTAN AND INDIAN PUNJAB, HARYANA, JAMMU, DELHI AND HIMACHAL PRADESH, DOWRY HAS BEEN DESCRIBED IN THE 1870S AS A COLLECTION OF VOLUNTARY GIFTS COMPRISING CLOTHES, JEWELLERY, HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND CASH BESTOWED ON THE BRIDE BY FAMILY AND FRIENDS AT THE TIME OF THE GIRL’S WEDDING. NOWHERE WAS IT DESCRIBED AS THE PREROGATIVE OF THE GROOM TO MAKE DEMANDS ON THE GIRL’S FAMILY. BUT THE BRITISH AT THAT TIME HAD NOT GRANTED THEIR OWN WOMEN PROPERTY RIGHTS, SO IT WAS HIGHLY UNLIKELY THEY WOULD DO SO FOR INDIAN WOMEN.”


But as they prohibited women from having any property rights, the great dowry menace began where there was insatiability for money and in this scenario women were the prey and victims of this greed and the culprits mistreated and obliterated the entire organization of marriage. The layout of this concept was gone and another was formatted where marriage is an institution accomplished for money as a contract deal and the bride is negotiated on the lump some amount and then if the deal is fixed and prominent and approachable to flatter in the society she can live with peace and if not then she is treated as an animal of the budgetary weight and is treated as the wellspring of property, riches and on the off chance that it isn't satisfied the best they do is hassling her for it and toward the end, she is simply left to end it all as the torment is agonizing. Another problem which is caused is aborting the female child , suppressing the ratio for in the desire of their want of a son who is treated as addition to the family income.

Isn’t it bizarre being civilized and still in need of dowry?


Killing innocents in the womb so a budgetary weight doesn't emerge?

All this is still done in many parts of India and this practice needs to be halted in the light of fact that the ravenousness will before long prompt when the outcomes will be unavoidable.


References

1.Dowry Murder : The Imperial Origins of a Cultural Crime by Veena Talwar Oldenburg

2.Land Tenure Reforms under British Rule

3.Dowry murder as a legacy of British rules

4.Don’t condemn the institution of dowry


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